DRACULA AS CULTURAL TOURISM
- " the long way the fiction in Bram Stoker 's book turns into a " cultural tourism product "
- " the incredible saga of a mass media subject which is about to become a prophet in its own roots' place "-
ATLAS Winter University - January, 2002, PORTOROZ, Slovenia
"Cultural tourism: past, present, future"
For a couple of days, to the Winter University in Portoroz we have discussed about Cultural Tourism: past, present, future. We had a topic that allow us to find an answer to some questions:
- is our heritage being sold to the higher bidder?
- is the culture being offered to tourists " authentic " or a poor popularized substitute for " real " culture?
- in the postmodern world where everything is cultural, does " cultural tourism " still have meaning?
And much more...
Before going to my particular subject I just want to mention only three of the ways in which a fact, an " item " of culture arrives to be a part of touristical package.
Suppose a site, a cultural one. It might be touchable, materialized ( a museum, a gallery etc. ) or untouchable, invisible ( a show, a congress etc. ). Tourists travel to the cultural site, and get satisfaction or knowledges. The site give identity to the local community ( “ I am from Athens “ or “ I am a drama actor “ and the tourists might have the feeling to belong to a certain group ( “ I have visited Greece”, “ I have seem Machbeth” … )
Suppose an other one, like a MacDonald restaurant or an Internet cafe. Tourists travel and feel safe when get satisfaction or knowledges because they recognize their usual way of life. Local people feel to belong to a developed area.
Or suppose on other one: the Winter University. It has no permanent location, no material goods for itself, is immaterial. Visiting the site (participating to WU ) students change ideas about present and future, feel being a part of a multinational and multicultural community, have the sentiment to share the life with the others.
I wanted just to point out the process of using culture for tourism, process that become more and more sophisticated nowadays. On my case we shall see more about how a cultural product arrive to be a part of a touristical package and we shall find curious effects of the interaction between " culture ", " cultural tourism " and the site were this kind of tourism is running. But as we speak about tourism, even cultural tourism we must point out the economic site of integrating culture in touristical packages, because it is about money, sometimes a lot of money. Just a short example
ELVIS PRISLEY - THE KING OF ROCK’N ROLL
during his life he made :
* a new style of music: millions of discs, hundreds of concerts
* numerous movies
as cultural tourism:
* Traveling to his concerts
* traveling in the resorts where his movies where made
* the travel of his team
after his death
The Elvis Presley ranch in Graceland
brings aprox. 15 millions USD/ years
twice as the income in his best year
60 % of the visitors are women
The site offer:
The international Elvis's week
A large range of souvenirs
A visit to his high school
A credit card " Elvis Presley"
The Elvis automobile museum
A special Christmas program
It is the fans' main center. The thousands of fans bring the tourists
Can we ask if Elvis has bigger success today that yesterday?
We have seen how culture can become a reason for touring, how it has happened and how much money is involved.
Greg Richards wrote on the Winter University program " particularly in the newly emerging nations of central and Eastern Europe, the past is being rapidly reformulated to support present realities and provide the potential for future ". Add these four short examples too and you shall find the reason of the subtitles I choose for my lecture
Dracula as cultural tourism
" the long way the fiction in Bram Stoker 's book turns into a " cultural tourism product "
- " the incredible saga of a mass media subject which is about to become a prophet in its own roots' place "-
I shall tell you a story about the past, we shall have a overlook on present and we shall see how a book fiction turn into at a “ cultural tourism “
You can easily recognized Dracula in a picture. If there is no name on the picture how can you be sure? How do you know is Dracula and not an other vampire, like his cousin? The vampire is a human arhetip: that means that we find it all over the world and at all people, of any race or in any historical place or time. There were a lot of legends and traditions about vampires or ghosts to many populations during the whole history. So, why Dracula? Very simple:
Because of an accident: Dracula - the book of Bram Stoker was a best seller. And more this book was the first snowball that turned into an avalanche.
Let's remember some pieces of information about this book to show the conditions from where the Adventure of Dracula started.
The novel: first version published in 1897 in US and in 1912 in England
- Dedicated to Hommy-beg - a famous popular English writer
- fantastic story popular in the time 9 end of XIX century, populated with monsters and terror
- the stepfather on " black humor " novel appeared on the wane of English gothic novel and before the science fiction ones
- an adventure story including: pursuits, strong characters, unusually and unexpected incidents
- preceded by The Castle in the Carpathians by Jules Verne
- presents in a classical way the fight between evil and the well
- its construction consists of several dairies plus an " introduction " : "The guest of Dracula"
- the characters belong to a kind of high society ( the best on the class they belong to )
- it used real stories but transformed on literature by the writer
- the action is located in a fantastic site unknown and even mythical for western people:
Transylvania = trans silvae - the land over the woods. Far away as the island of Robinson Crusoe
- people and places are transformed for fiction according to the time fashion in England
- it was considered a " witched " book, may be a genius one
- it is considered as the better expression of a myth: the vampires
- Bram Stoker was under the influence of Henry Irving - an famous actor at the time, Walt Whitman, the novel "Carmila " by Sheridan le Fanu (1971 )
- he was member of the secret neopagan and magical society " Golden Dawn " from Outer
Comparing Dracula novel with " Wuthering Heights " and with " The Fall of the House of Usher " Daily Mail " wrote at the time: " But Dracula is even more appalling, in its gloomy fascination than any one of these "
It was a best seller !
But where is the cultural tourism ? There was none. May be the visit of an old maid to the city to buy the book. But everything was changed with the movies, and more precisely with Hollywood style.
DRACULA IN MOVIES
NOSFERATU by Murnau, silent picture - which bring on the screens the vampires theme; censored in 1921 and forbidden to minors - subject to a trail with the widow of Stoker for copyright
- 1932 DRACULA by Tod Browning with Bella Lugosi. Bella Lugosi was already famous because of FRANKENSTEIN
- 1932 VAMPYR by Dreyes
- 1944 THE RETURN OF THE VAMPIRE by Lew Landers with Bella Lugosi
- THE SUN OF DRACULA by Robert Siodmak with Lou Chaney Junior
- THE HOUSE OF DRACULA
- THE HOUSE OF FRANKENSTEIN
- in England HORROR OF DRACULA by Terence Fisher with Christopher Lee
other 6 movies with Christopher Lee between 1965 -1972; HORROR OF DRACULA, DRACULA - PRICE OF DARKNESS, TASTE THE BLOOD OF DRACULA, THE SATANIC RITES OF DRACULA
1967 DANCE OF THE VAMPIRES by Roman Polanski
Now we have arrived to the first cultural tourism
DRACULA AS CULTURAL TOURISM
-In US: the Hollywood tours include the visit to the studios where the movies with vampires were made. The tour " a trip to the unknown face of the stars " through Hollywood and Beverly Hills includes Bella Lagosi house ( special made as shown in the movies ), Charlie Chaplin studio or the Palace of Magicians theater " not to miss " visits. Bella Lagosi house can be use also for exquisite parties
-In England: the midnight shows on cinema were special organized to bring anxiety. A " not to miss " visit
THE VAMPIRES, DRACULA etc association, societies and groups explode. Halloween finds new characters
For the time being the vampires or Dracula tourism was located mainly in US and Great Britain connected with the ghosts in old castles. The associations, groups or societies connected to this subject were the main promoters of tourism touching any destination that involved in a way or other Dracula or vampires or ghosts. But the travel were mainly located in US and Great Britain, mainly Scotland, some of them in Ireland, France or Germany bat we can not discuss as mass tourism but more about a niche.
What about Transylvania, the country where the action of the book and the movies took place. It was still a forbidden land. Between the wars there was not an important demand for tourism. We can say that before the second WW tourism was mostly " journeys " as only rich people afford to "travel ". And businessmen. But after the WW the tourism turn into a mass movement, and millions of tourists took advantage of low prices and travel.
Between the West and East there was built the iron Curtain. And Transylvania was behind it. Until 1968-1970 was a forbidden place: like it was written in antic maps " hic sunt ... not leones but communists ".
And now the new adventure of the Stoker fiction
August 1968: the Soviet tanks went into Prague. The entire world was horribly and shocked. Next day Ceausescu, the Romanian leader - a communist too - protest and organized a huge popular meeting. He was the " good gay ": in the country the life was the best of the communist block, the country was opened to the world, including Western countries, the terror was relaxed. He was reworded by the visit of the French president, de went to China to meet Mao Tz Dun, Nixon came to Romania, and he took a ride with the king of Great Britain. Tourism was blooming in Romania: the Black See coast, health resorts, touring Romania.
After the invasion in Czechoslovakia the Americans prepared a special program to help and bring confront to Check people. The name: " the friendship ambassadors ": groups of young people performing cultural shows on a tour of 2-3 week leaving to the local people, mainly in the villages. The Russian did not like it at all. And the whole program, tell quell was moved to Romania.
Romania was not prepared for such a tourism. Three villages, located in South Transylvania, two near Brasov and one near Sibiu were designated to accommodate the young Americans. From there they went in the neibourghood to perform and to assist to the show organized by the Romanian young men.
What a shock: the two worlds - the capitalist West and the socialist East - stayed face to face. And it was a shock: it was 1969-1970 after the youth "revolution": hippies, sex not war etc.etc. Romanian peasants know nothing about. They found that the living manner of these young Americans was indecent, scandalous... making love in the hayÖ And more, they know nothing about animals: they try to milk the ram, they tag at the donkey tail... The Americans, on their side found out that these people living in a socialist country are still human being with a very rich cultural life and even with a fine life, but very different as that one of America. And they were very poor: no machineries, working like in Middle Age. But what old traditions!
The real problems was the theire' s main complaint: where is Dracula castle? Is it any danger to sleep in peasants house? There is no protection with garlic, there are no splinters. etc. etc. All these were Greek to the guides and their supervisors or secret service. No one heard about Dracula. Vampires did not exist in Romania, only varcolacs - but they are mythological characters
What to do? The first to find more about this subject were the guides that red the books brought by the Americans. The guides reported, the agents of the National Travel Office also reported, the Secret Service reported too. To Ceausescu. Informations were collected, the high party's leaders, the historians and the party's members working in culture reported.
Dracula is a blasphemy, it is a shame, an injury for Romanian people and history. Such facts as shown on movies or in the book did not exist in Romania and more they are a unpardonable offense to the memory of one of our price - Vlad Tepes - Vlad the Impaler - who fight against the Turks and defeated not only Valachaia but the hole Europe.
- no printing about this subject and more about Vlad Tepes
- the guides will tell the tourists the real story of Vlad the Impaler. And they did as they also thought that was unjust to turn Vlad Tepes into a vampire. And I underline these sentiment: now it is no longer possible, but at that time, pushed by national socialist propaganda it was but natural to react that way.
- The National Travel Office will organize a tour, a Dracula tour to bring more tourists and make dollars and to explain the tourists the huge lies the movies related.
Let's have a look to the man who inspired Bram Stoker and disturbed the communists and was sympathized by people even after 6 centuries.
Vlad Tepes - named also Vlad the Impaler from the dynasty of Basarab, the house of Draculesti. Great patriot, a deadly foe of Turks and thieves. Big lines on Romanian history manuals, thrilling stories about his life.
A short looks about his time and life on which Bram Stoker novel released
His father: VLAD DRACUL - from family of Draculesti - also voivode ( prince ) of Valachaia 143? -1444
Sigismund of Luxembourg received him in the Order of Dragon
Born in Sighisoara ( Transylvania ) as his family was in exile
In Romanian " drac " = devil; " dragon" = dragon being Orthodox "of the dragon" slipped into "dracul”
Vlad: * Born 1430 ? He has a brother: Radu "the handsome "
* His childhood was spent as hostage in Turkey or exiled in Moldavia and Transylvania Sultan
* 1458 -1460 reinforce the internal power
- kill all the possible pretender to the throne
- made wars against Sibiu and Brasov to catch some pretender to the throne an punish the cities for having supplied weapon to his opponents
- during Christmas obliged the unfaithful boyars to build the citadel of Poienari
- eradicate the beggars and " solve " the gypsies' problem
- assure the safety in the country punishing callously the thieves and the unhonest people
- organize the trade and the army
- ruled using state terrorism as Nero, Diocletian, etc.
The usual punishment was the stake, by hundreds round his castle to discourage others to get on it ( in the castle and on the stake )
So he was surname Vlad the Impaler
Even today, people ask " were are you Prince Tepes ..." when protesting against corruption etc.
*1460 start the fight against the Turks with an expedition in Bulgaria up near to Istanbul
- received the ambassadors of the Sultans who ask for the tribute in children janissary' corps because they refuse to take of their turbans, he fixed them with nails on the headsÖ"against the wind"
- escape of an ambush and punished the Turks putting them on stakes, a higher one for the pasha
* 1462 Mohammed the IInd, the Conqueror of Constantinople rose a huge army and get into Valachaia
Vlad Tepes is alone, with a small army. Matei Corvin - king of Hungary wait at Brasov. Vlad must finally escape in Transylvania were was imprisoned
*1474 released and obliged to stay in Buda. He married a in Hungarian royal family girl
*1476 back on the throne of Valachaia. After 2 months was killed: his had was lost and the body was buried in Sangov Monastery
Well, those were the times and the customs in Middle Age. And a little rafter in Orient. The 7 children of one of the Romanian princes where killed before him because he refuses to be a Muslim: fact turned into legends. Even today, in some Muslim countries they cut the hand of the thieves. And more, CNN said that the thalibans use to hang they opponents in the public square and let them exposed for a couple of weeks. The new rulers in Afghanistan changed this: they will be exposed only for a couple of hours. It is a long way for the European ideas about justice to be accepted all over!
There is a rich literature about the real Dracula and each brochure or book is partial. Blackiting writings
Geshichte Dracula waide - Lubeck 1477
Brochures about Dracula: 1491 - Brabderburg, 1494 - Ausburg, 1499 - Nurenberg
Universal chronicle - Prague 1544
The Turk chronicler Nechri 1433
C.C. Giurescu The history of Romanians 1943
Skazanie Drakule voevode 1498 ?
The German ones came from Sibiu ( Hermannstadt ) and Brasov because of the wars made against them. It must be mentioned the Russian one which accuse Vlad to be a catholic.
In the Romanian Literature Vlad Tepes is a positive character, good patriot and enemy of thieves
Some literature goes on
In the name of state terrorism Buican make an arch on the time from Dracula to Stalin and Hitler. Any way, it seams that Ivan the Terrible was one of his disciples. More, Buican said that the American soldiers received the Dracula novel before going to Europe during the 2.nd WW. An American university teacher, found during the cold war that novel Dracula was a prophecy for that times. And more , the vampires were used as " bad gays ' by CIA and FBI in movies for propaganda
We can conclude that Bram Stoker had a lot of sources for inspiration.
Let's come back and see how was solved the big problems that the Romanian communists had in order to organized the Dracula tour. That time the image of Romania was " folklore:
dances and music: the Western people new about Romania the pan flute of George Zamfir, the tenisman Ilie Nastase and... Ceausescu - the good gay that time - the opponent of the Soviets.
The biggest problem was and still is for Romanian tourism how to " kill the kilometers". Romania seams a little country but it has over 20 millions inhabitants and is a large country if you try to travel through it. The main airport is in Bucharest. From seaside to Bucharest you have to drive 300 km on bad roads: no highway: you shall need about 5 hours. What the clients will do during that trip. There is no Dracula in that area. And we can find much more examples..
The itinerary of Jonathan Harker was one. In Munich he enjoy a witches banquet. Than he arrived at Clausburg ( Cluj Napoca ) and continued to Bistrita and by Borgo pass to Dracula Castle. Nobody will make such a long way: at least mass tourists. Dracula traveled from Varna in Bulgaria by sea to Great Britain to conquered it. How to kill the miles? And it is Romania that waited tourists from Great Britain. Harker's friends travel by ship to Galati and then trough Moldavia to Bistrita valley to Dracula's castle. From Galati to Piatra Neamt there are about 500 km crossing the plane and nothing about Dracula.
And the Americans used to ask for 4-5 days tours, maximum 250 km per days in coach
And the worse, there was nothing in Borgo Pass except the nature. Romanian tours focused on Bucharest, North Moldavia with its outside painted monasteries and Transylvania with its medieval towns and citadels.
And more, the communist rulers asked to follow the Vlad Tepes exploits that means Valachaia.
There were selected some castles:
The one of Poienari built by boyars at a Christmas day. Quickly renovated, you had to mount 1200 steps. A long time but it worse. An exquisite ruin, a magnificent view on the top of the pick and the real hidden place of Dracula. In a village nearby there was also a tradition from Tepes time and tourist can overnight to the peasant and participate to their dances and music. It looked like the best point.
a medieval Town, well conserved, recently renovated and with Dracula's father's births house. Friendly people. It looked good and it was already in the touristical circuit.
Sibiu, was added: a medieval town too. In the book there was also something about Dracula: "In the mountains, in the woods, South Hermannstadt ( the Saxon name of Sibiu ) there is a place called Salomance where each 5 years the devil came to take a member of Dracula family as a blood tribute ". The Sibiu area was fine and there were plenty of places you can sell them as Salomance.
Also Brasov, a medieval town too with its famous Black Church and Bran Castle was added too. Surprise! Ceausescu said: " if they want a castle give them Bran castle. It was a royal one and the kings have sucked enough the blood of the people. It is about time to take something back". No comments. Bran Castle become the main point of Dracula tour and overnight Bran castle was Dracula castle
In the middle Age the Bran castle was depending of the town of Brasov and was the first defense towards South against Turks, Tartars, but also Romanian voivodes as Vlad Tepes. In 1901 it was given as a present to the queen of Romania who transform it an a summer residence. The famous composer George Enescu, the boy friend of one of the princesses used to spent the summer here. A fine park took the place of the medieval customs and the army barracks. Redecorated, a lot of expensive furniture, carpets and Meisenn china. But no tomb, no coffin, and no catacomb even any garlic: it looked more like a parador. But if the guides said that that was the Castle that was: " only that communist guides who kept taking about one of their prince and forgot we came here to see Dracula..."
But the business goes on and more and more tourists came for Dracula tour. After some years, a clever manager of Bistrita travel office convinced the rulers to build an inn, but in fact a " Dracula castle " in Borgo Pass.
In fact it was a motel but with a secret room for the coffin with a vampire ( someone of the staff ) that spring out of the coffin and scare the tourists. During the night ghosts were all round - peasants playing the happening. Because it was a happening organized for 140 tourists that can overnight in this *** hotel.
You can see how different was the journey of Jonathan Harker and that one of the tour, which was the story of the movies or the books and which was that one of the tour. Never to say about food etc.etc.
But this was happened not exclusively because of the communist rules or Ceausescu but also because many people, even guides though that they must tell the through about Dracula and Tepes because he was a good patriot. Otherwise the tourists will believe that Romanian are vampires.
We can conclude that there was a long way from literature to a cultural tourism package based on Dracula
1989 - the Romanian on line TV revolution. Things changed. Transition is hard. I do not want to go into this subject but to keep looking what happened with Dracula as cultural package. For the last 10 year not only the itinerary was the same:
- the infrastructure was the same, so there was no way to " kill the kilometers " with other method
- the Romanian capitals were too fable to allow to start new sites or major investments dedicated to Dracula
- the financial power of the small private agencies did not allowed them to be present to the international fairs and to promote the image of " Dracula ". The state took out his hand on tourism and economy
- the Bran castle keeps staying the main point: first he was known as Dracula castle by foreign touroperators, second there was no other alternative offer. It keep the same presentation as there are people that come to visit it for the sake of the queen , or for its historical value and more, it is a fine castle in the middle of a new rural touristical area.
- the image of Romania abroad was not the best and nobody put money and work to make an other image. The financial funds accumulated by the Association of Travel Agencies arrived to have significance importance only the last 2 years.
- the income in Romania was down.
Nevertheless the life is going on and people accommodate with international customs and tried to cope with the European Union.
One exception: “ the privatization of Dracula”.
A short story. In 1991 some good people that worked on former Dracula tours, being abroad for some years learnt the free market rules. So, they founded and protected for copyright the Dracula Society. In fact its name is " The Transylvanian Society of Dracula " TSD. Their brochure says that TSD organizes annual symposiums, seminars on matter dracularian, a newsletter comes out every month and every 5 years a World Dracula Congress is organized. It has chapter in Romania and abroad, make members, and the members become count Dracula Ambassadors and may join the Order of Transylvanian Knights to pass the tests to become Knights of Count Dracula Order, Baron of the House of Dracula etc. They organize tours on 5 level of initiation and have a range of product of the house of Dracula to be sold and protected to be produce by others. Their main success was the Halloween party organized for the embassies staff. With such an occasion the minister of Tourism become a baron and get into the game
There are also several utilities connected with Dracula, made without take seriously into account the TSD copyright: 2 restaurants in Bucharest - and they are keep working from 5 years, a alchemy bar in Bistrita, many offer of travel agencies for Dracula tours, 2 new hotels and restaurant with specific shows in Sighisoara, a Dracula festival in Sighisoara which attends thousands of young men, the show " judging the witch " performed in the square in Sighisoara, masques parade etc.
All these bring money and start running the tourism.
But, for the time being Dracula is not an image to promote Romanian tourism. But it might be one of them! After the last elections, the Minister of tourist remembered he is a Baron of the House of Dracula and starts a well-popularised campaign for a Dracula Park. I shall cross over the 6 months of preparation, even if there are funny stories and I shall just tell you that the chosen place was Sighisoara.
From 3 years the foundation " Castrum Sex " - old name of Sighisoara has made researches and plans to develop the tourism in the town. Sighisoara has an very valuable medieval area that is now under UNESCO protection. But the tourism here is only transit, during the day. The research shows that an important number of coaches came daily. The most of them are from Hungary, Austria and Check Republic. The visit consists only of the central of medieval town, the Dracula father birth house and sometimes the lunch. Also shopping to the young artisans that keep staying there with their shops because of the Dracula festival. The accommodation is offered by 3 2* old hotels waiting for modernization.
A complete research concerning the property of the houses and the date of construction was made
The study shows also an increasing interest of foreigner to invest in the area. The Messerschmidt foundation renovated a whole house and organized the German Cultural Center including a hotels and some restaurants. An Italian venture will open next summer in a renovated house a new 5* hotel.
The marketing study indicates that Dracula is not the best image to rely on. A better option is to bring back to life the medieval area: to put in hotels, restaurants, craftsmen shops, organize the historical places to be visits ( the torture chamber, the entrance in the citadel on the medieval way by buying the entrance to the guards on product ( sold near the entrance ) etc . etc. and more, every worker dressed in medieval costumes and plenty of shows. The old area can be a huge parador and a place to live round the clock in a living medieval life. The German were interested as there is a Saxon area, the Americans, English and Japan love medieval ruins
At this moment arrived the decision of the Tourism Ministry to organize the Dracula Park. Many meeting to the Lord Mayer house and finally accepted. I do not want to present the project but let's see how a Hollywood idea and a book can transform a country.
The Dracula Park will be linked to the medieval town being located on the other side of the hill in an old wood. The investment is quite impressive and the constructed area large with a lot of utilities
DRACULA PARK'S UTILITIES
THE CASTLE: medieval style, surrounded by walls and water ditches; arms hall, torture room, judgment hall, alchemy lab, vampire house, the prison tower, the initiation hall, the throne hall, outside a labyrinth, etc.
INTERACTIVE CRAFT SHOPS: special tailoring, art gallery, craftsmen shops, ruins workshop, workshop for teeth sharpen etc.
MAIN STREET: open air shows, carnivals, tournaments, archers' contests, burning the witches, shops, restaurants, medieval atmosphere
GASTRONOMY: about 20 restaurants with customized specialities: spitted bloody meat, red cocktails etc.
From a simple book we get to a large investments. How they estimated them.
They use international statistics and put them on Romanian situation. So they estimate the number of tourists, the incomes, the expenses and the profit. On that point I made myself an estimation starting from that figures: 1100000 visitors divided by 365 days and 40 persons in a bus show us that there will be 75 buses per days! Quite impressive.
How it will be financed?
Part by state, part by public subscription - the sell of the shares started already and there were sold nearly for 400000 USD - and half of the investments from private sector. There is still an " if ". If the subscription will not be complete by March they have to give up as the works can not start this year And here it is a Dracula Park: from Bram Stoker fiction to 17 millions gross profit per year! God helps them!
What think Romanians about Dracula Park. The enquiries made showed:
On national level:
- question: do you think that Dracula park is a good idea? 65 % yes, 10 % no, 25% I do not know
- question: do you think that Dracula is a bad image for Romania: 25 % yes, 15 % no 60 % no matter
Impressive change on thinking about Dracula!
- question: do you agree to build Dracula park: 70% yes, 5 % no 25 % no answers
- what do you think Dracula park will bring to Sighisoara: 45 % more jobs, 30 % more business, 20 %relaunch the economy, 5 % it will be bad
But the saga is not finished. Once Dracula Park launched at Sighisoara, the liberals - in opposition now - from Brasov announced that a Dracula Park will be built near Brasov at Rasnov and the Department Council has already allocated the land and a large budget to make a feasibility plan. The future will bring may be more news.
Just in case do not forget to make an insurance
As long as I remember, the history said that the population of US was of European origin. They have crossed the Ocean to give shape to the “ American Dream”. They have succeeded. They even have realized the ‘ big American pie “. And they exported it in the hole world. But when they come to their roots, things might be complicated, as you could see.
This was the “ long way the fiction in Bram Stoker 's book turns into a " cultural tourism product " or " the incredible saga of a mass media subject which is about to become a prophet in its own roots' place.”
“ That’ s all folks. Don't go away. I'll be back soon with an other cartoon !”
Thank you. Waiting for your questions.
Portoroz, January 14,2002